Alabama state
Capital: Montgomery
State abbreviation/Postal Code: Ala./AL
Governor: Robert Bentley, R (to Jan. 2015)
Lieut. Governor: Kay Ivey, D (to Jan. 2015)
Senators: Jeff Sessions, R (to Jan. 2015); Richard C. Shelby, R (to Jan. 2017)
Motto: Audemus jura nostra defendere (We dare defend our rights)
Alabama state symbols
flower: camellia (1959)
bird: yellowhammer (1927)
song: “Alabama” (1931)
tree: Southern longleaf pine (1949, 1997)
salt water fish: fighting tarpon (1955)
fresh water fish: largemouth bass (1975)
horse: racking horse (1975)
mineral: hematite (1967)
rock: marble (1969)
game bird: wild turkey (1980)
dance: square dance (1981)
nut: pecan (1982)
fossil: species Basilosaurus Cetoides (1984)
official mascot and butterfly: eastern tiger swallowtail (1989)
insect: monarch butterfly (1989)
reptile: Alabama red-bellied turtle (1990)
gemstone: star blue quartz (1990)
Shell: scaphella junonia johnstoneae (1990)
Alabama nickname: Yellowhammer State
Origin of name: From Alabama River by early European explorers and named "Alibamu" after the local Indian tribe
10 largest cities (2010): Birmingham, 212,237; Montgomery, 205,764; Mobile, 195,111; Huntsville, 180,105; Tuscaloosa, 90,468; Hoover, 81,619; Dothan, 65,496; Decatur, 55,683; Auburn, 53,380; Madison, 42,938
Land area: 50,744 sq mi.
Geographic center: In Chilton Co., 12 mi. SW of Clanton
Number of counties: 67
Largest county by population and area: Jefferson, 657,229 (2005); Baldwin, 1,596 sq mi
State forests: 21 (48,000 ac.)
State parks: 22 (45,614 ac.)
Residents: Alabamian; Alabaman
2010 resident census population: 4,779,736
2010 resident census population (rank): Male: 2,320,188; Female: 2,459,548; White: 3,275,394 (68.5%); Black: 1,251,311 (26.2%); American Indian: 28,218 (0.6%); Asian: 53,595 (1.1%); Other race: 96,910 (2.0%); Two or more races: 71,251 (1.5%); Hispanic/Latino: 185,602 (3.9%)

List of Counties in the Alabama state

Localities: 6

Famous natives and residents from Alabama:

Joe Morris
Jazz trumpeter
Michael Rooker
Philip Rivers
Football player
Rosa Parks
Civil rights activist
Courteney Cox
Channing Tatum
Debby Ryan
Tallulah Bankhead
Ralph Abernathy
Civil rights activist

History of Alabama
Before the period of European colonization, various indigenous people belonging to different cultures lived in the present day Alabama. There were people of the Paleo-Indian culture, the Archaic Period, the Woodland period, and the Mississippian culture.It was during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC–AD 700) that a trade relationship was developed with the Northeast through the Ohio River. This was continued till the arrival of the Europeans. The Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville Alabama shows ample evidence of the Mississippian culture that played a dominant role in the state from 1000 to 1600 AD.

The first Europeans to enter Alabama were the Spanish in the 16th century and when they arrived historical tribes such as the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Muskogean, Choctaw, Creek, and the Koasati were still living and practicing agriculture. In the year 1540, Hernando De Soto paid documented visit to the region.

He traveled through Mabila and even through some other parts of the state. After a gap of about 160 years, the French colonized the region and in the year 1702. For the following nine years, the area was under the French seat of government of Louisiana.

After the defeat of the French by the British in the Seven Years' War, the region was handed over to the British in 1763. It remained a part of the British West Florida from the year 1763 to 1783. The United States emerged victorious in the American Revolutionary War and the region was distributed between the United States and Spain. Spain had its control on the region till April 1813, after which it was conceded to the US forces.

There settled a group of wealthy as well as poorer newcomers afterwards. While the former started large plantations on the most fertile areas, the latter established a living in the less fertile area. The surge in population led to the creation of the Territory of Alabama on 3 March 1817 (but became effective from 15 August 1817), by the United States Congress with Saint Stephens as the territorial capital and William W. Bibb as its governor. After a gap of two years on 14 December 1819, it became the 22nd state of the union. The capital of the state was shifted from Huntsville to Cahaba then to Tuscaloosa and finally moved to Montgomery.

There were a total of 964,201 people by 1860 in Alabama. Of them almost half of the population were enslaved African Americans and the rest were free people of color. When the second constitutional convention dispatched the ordinance of secession, Alabama retreated from the Union. That was on 11 January 1861. It remained an independent republic for a few days and later became a part of the Confederate States of America. Alabama played a pivotal role in the American Civil War where it supplied around 120,000 soldiers to the war front. In 1868 it was readmitted to the union after the pro-union southerners and the blacks combined to create a Republican Party and assumed power. The coming of railroads acted as a boost to Alabama’s industrialization. The cotton textile industry advanced and farming remained dominant.

Towards the later part of the 19th century, Alabama’s economy improved to a considerable extent with an even greater improvement in industrialization. Today, Alabama ranks high in the manufacturing of milk, soybeans, wheat, cotton, fruits, livestock, corn, cattle, etc.

Located in the southeastern corner of the United States, Alabama shares its borders with Georgia on the east, Tennessee on the north, Mississippi on the west and Florida and the Gulf of Mexico on the south. The state of Alabama is spread over a total area of 52,419 square miles making it the 30th largest state of the United States. Some of the major cities of Alabama are Huntsville, Mobile, Birmingham, Florence, Madison, and Montgomery, etc.

Cheaha Mountain is the highest point in the state of Alabama standing at an altitude of 2,407 feet above the sea level. The lowest point is where the state meets the Gulf of Mexico at sea level. Alabama has a number of rivers of which the major rivers are the Tombigbee River, the Alabama River, and the Tennessee River. The major lakes of the state are Guntersville Lake, the Wilson Lake, Lake Martin, West Point Lake, etc.

Alabama has coastal plains towards the Gulf of Mexico while towards the north it comprises of broken terrains and hills. The state of Alabama can be divided into five major land areas; East Gulf Coastal Plain, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley, the Piedmont Upland, Highland Rim, and the Cumberland Plateau.

The average temperature of the state ranges from a high of 91.5 degree Fahrenheit to a low of 30.0 degree Fahrenheit. The recorded highest temperature of the state is 112 degree Fahrenheit and was recorded at Centerville on 5 September 1925. The lowest temperature, –27 degree Fahrenheit was recorded on 30 January 1966 at New Market.

Alabama has a unique charm of its own which makes it an exceedingly beautiful place. The pristine sea beaches of Alabama have a distinctive flavor and a magical appeal of its own. It is often referred to as the gem of the South, an apt name given to the many unseen splendor the state possesses. The amalgamation of history, beauty, and adventure make Alabama a wonderland. There are several attractive tourist places some of them are mentioned below:

  • US Space and rocket center
  • Cathedral Caverns State Park
  • Noccalula falls
  • Cheaha Mountain
  • USS Alabama Battleship Memorial Park
  • Gulf Shores
  • Orange Beach
  • Dauphin Island
  • Russell Cave National Monument
  • Birmingham Zoo
  • Bellingrath Gardens and Home
  • Chandler Mountain and Locust Fork
  • Lake Martin and Horseshoe Bend

Alabama Major Universities, Colleges and Schools:

  • Oxford High School
    1 Yellow Jacket Drive, Oxford, AL 36203
  • Troy University
    University Ave., Troy, Alabama 36082
  • University of Alabama School of Medicine
    1530 3rd Avenue South, BIRMINGHAM AL 35294
  • Green Valley Elementary School
    3200 Old Columbiana Road Hoover, AL 35226
  • Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University
    4900 Meridian Street, Huntsville, AL 35811